**TECHNICAL DRAWING (67)**

(Candidates offering Technical Drawing Applications are not eligible to offer Technical Drawing.)

**Aims:**

1. To develop competence among the students to pursue technical courses like engineering, architecture, draftsmanship, surveying and other professional courses where mechanical and geometrical drawings are involved.

2. To acquire basic knowledge and understanding of mechanical drawing.

3. To acquire skills of making and understanding technical drawing which enables translation of ideas of a designer on paper into physical product and appliances.

**CLASS IX**

There will be one written paper of three hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of 20 marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, A and B. Section A will consist of a number of questions covering the entire syllabus. The candidates are to attempt three questions.

Section B will consist of questions which will require detailed answers. There will be a choice and candidates will be required to answer two questions from this section. **1. Introduction**

(i) Drawing Instruments List Size and Description Demonstration.

(ii) Types of Lines Type, description and general application.

(a) Continuous thick straight

(b) Continuous thin straight / curved

(c) Continuous thin freehand

(d) Continuous thin straight with zig-zags

(e) Dashed / Dotted

(f) Chain line thin

(g) Chain line thin with thick ends.

(iii) Lettering and Numbering Free hand, single stroke vertical / inclined capital letter and numerals.

(iv) Dimensioning

(a) Basic principles

(b) Systems: Aligned, Unidirectional

(c) Practical hints.

(v) Sheet Layout Basic layout with border lines, title block etc. as recommended by the teacher.

(vi) Free Hand Drawing / Sketching Sketching involving common tools and processes along with common simple

mechanical devices used in everyday life. e.g.:

(a) Woodwork tools such as wheelbarrow, wheels and axle, turnbuckle, tool rest for wood in the wooden jack plane, two irons of a jack plane, saw, etc.

(b) Metalwork tools such as engineer's bench vice, files of various types and shapes, hammers, chisels, drills, hacksaw, etc.

(c) Items of everyday use such as fountain pen, ball pen, geometrical instruments, pencils, rulers, shoe brush, nut crackers, pincers, pliers, etc.

(d) Common visible items such as cold water tap, bicycle, scooter, street lamp, table and chair, radio, two-in-one tape recorder, sound systems, television, teacher's desk and chair, electric fans of various types, black board, etc. **2. Plane Geometry**

(i) Geometrical Constructions.

(a) Bisect a line segment

(b) Division of a line segment into required number of equal parts / proportional parts.

(c) Perpendicular lines.

(d) Parallel lines

(e) Bisection of an angle

(f) Trisection of a right / straight angle

(g) Congruent angle

(h) Bisector of an arc

(i) To find the centre of an arc

(j) To draw an arc of given radius and satisfying given conditions

(k) Regular polygons up to six sides using T -square, set squares and protractor.

(ii) Templates

Simple and basic, involving geometrical constructions and tangential arcs. **3. Solid Geometry**

(i) Orthographic Projections

Introduction to the first and the third angle method of projection

(a) Projections of the points, lines and surfaces in the first quadrant / third quadrant / contained by a reference plane:

Projections of points

Projections of a line:

Line parallel to one reference plane and parallel to / contained by the other.

Line parallel to / contained by one reference plane and perpendicular to the other Line inclined to one and parallel to

/ contained by the other.

Projections of a surface / plane:

Surface perpendicular to one reference plane and parallel to / contained by the other.

Surface Perpendicular to both the reference planes.

(b) Orthographic views:

Conversion of a simple pictorial view into orthographic views.

(ii) Isometric / Oblique Drawing

Copying the given isometric / oblique view.

**INTERNAL ASSESSMENT**

Minimum 10 drawing assignments are to be done during the year, as assigned by the teacher.

**CLASS X**

There will be one written paper of three hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of 20 marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, A and B. Section A will consist of a number of questions covering the entire syllabus. The candidates are to attempt three questions.

Section B will consist of questions which will require detailed answers. There will be a choice and candidates will be required to answer two questions in all from this section. **1. Plane Geometry (i) Geometrical Constructions**

(a) Division of a circle into equal parts (4, 6, 8, 12).

(b) A circle of given radius passing through two given points.

(c) An arc passing through three non-collinear points.

(d) An arc / a circle of given radius:

Touching a given straight line and passing through a given point.

Touching two straight lines which make a right angle / an acute angle / an obtuse angle between them.

Touching a given arc and a straight line touching two given arcs.

(e) Two circles touching each other externally and touching two straight lines making an acute angle between them, radius of one circle is given.

(f) A triangle / quadrilateral when its perimeter and the ratio of the lengths of sides given using divisions of the perimeter into proportional parts.

(g) A regular polygon (3, 4, 5, 6 sides) with special methods when length of its side is given.

(h) A regular octagon in a square when side of the square is equal to the distance between the parallel sides of the octagon.

(i) Inscribe / circumscribe a circle on a regular polygon up to 6 sides.

(j) A regular polygon (3, 4, 5, 6, 8 sides) when the radius of inscribed / circumscribed circle is given.

(k) Inside a regular polygon: To draw same number of equal circles as the number of sides of the polygon (up to 6 sides), touching one / two sides of the polygon and two of the other circles.

(1) Outside a regular polygon: To draw same number of equal circles as the number of sides of the polygon ( up to 6 sides ), touching one side of the polygon and two of the other circles.

(m) Regular hexagon and three equal circles inside it touching one / two sides of the hexagon and other two equal circles.

(n) A circle and inside it 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 smaller equal circles touching it internally and touching other two equal circles.

(o) Tangent / two tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle.

(p) External / internal common tangent / tangents to two given circles.

**(ii) Templates**

Redraw the given figure involving geometrical constructions and tangency.

**(iii) Scales**

(a) Definition / formula to find the Representative Fraction and the Scale length showing neat working.

(b) Construction of a Plain / Diagonal Scale.

(c) Show the given lengths on the scale.

**2. Solid Geometry **Orthographic projections

(a) Lines and planes in the first / third quadrant:

Front view and top view only

• Line inclined to both the reference planes:

- Draw projections

- Find the true length when projections given.

• Surface / plane:

- Surface inclined to one reference plane perpendicular to the other.

- Surface inclined to both the reference planes.

(b) Solids:

Right regular solid such as prism and pyramid with the base as a regular polygon up to six sides, circular cylinder and cone in the first / third angle method of projection. **Projections** (front view, top view and side view) and development of surfaces (parallel / radial)

− Axis perpendicular to one reference plane and parallel to the other.

− Axis parallel to both the reference planes.

− Axis inclined to one reference plane and parallel to other. Use of auxiliary plane may be included. (Auxiliary elevation /

plan). **Sections**

Axis perpendicular to Horizontal Plane and parallel to Vertical Plane with a section plane parallel / inclined to one reference plane and perpendicular to the other (Figure showing Vertical Trace / Horizontal Trace should be given. Questions based on word problems should be excluded.)

− Sectional views.

− Development of lateral surface.

− True shape of a section.

− Auxiliary front / top view when auxiliary plane parallel to the section plane.

(c) Orthographic Views:

Conversion of a pictorial view (isometric / oblique) into orthographic views using the first / third angle method of projection.

(d) Sectional Orthographic Views:

− Conversion of a pictorial view (isometric / oblique) into sectional / half sectional view / views using the first / third angle method of projection.

− Conversion of given orthographic views into sectional / half Sectional views and adding the missing view.

(e) Isometric / Oblique Drawing:

− Copy the given figure.

− Conversion of the given orthographic view into an isometric / oblique view (Use of isometric scale is excluded).

**INTERNAL ASSESSMENT (20 Marks)**

1. A file containing minimum 15 drawing assignments should be prepared.

2. A three dimensional model of a wooden joint should be made using thermocol which will help the students to learn assembly technique and procedure.

The suggested wooden joints are Mortise and tendon joint, Dovetail joint, Lap joint.

**EVALUATION**

The assignments / project work are to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, but not teaching the subject in the section / class. For example, a teacher of Geometrical and Mechanical Drawing of Class XI may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X Technical Drawing Projects.) The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently.

**Award of marks : (20 Marks)**

Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) - 10 marks

External Examiner - 10 marks

The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school. The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.

**INTERNAL ASSESSMENT IN TECHNICAL DRAWING - GUIDELINES FOR MARKING WITH GRADES**

Grade | Preparation | Analysis | Process | Results | Presentation | Marks |

1 | Follows instructions (written, oral, diagrammatic) with understanding; modifies if needed. Familiarity with and safe use of apparatus, materials, techniques. | Analyses problem systematically. Recognises a number of variables and attempts to control them to build a logical plan of construction. | Comments upon, recognises use of instruments, degree of accuracy. Process is systematic. | Recognises and comments upon sources of error. Can deal with unexpected effects, suggesting modifications. | Presentation is accurate and good. Appropriate techniques are well used. | 4 |

2 | Follows instructions to perform experiment with step-by-step operations. Awareness of safety. Familiarity with apparatus, materials and techniques. | Specifies sequence of operation; gives reasons for any change in procedure. | Makes relevant procedural modification. No assistance is needed for understanding steps of constructions. | Draws qualitative conclusions to proceed with construction. | Presentation is adequate. Appropriate techniques are used. | 3 |

3 | Follows instructions to perform a single operation at a time. Safety awareness. Familiarity with apparatus & materials. | Develops simple development strategy. Trial and error modifications made to proceed with the construction. | Detailed instructions not given. | Draws obvious qualitative conclusions as required in the process. | Presentation is okay, but disorganised in some places. Overwriting; rough work is untidy. | 2 |

4 | Follows some instructions to perform a single practical operation. Casual about Safety. Manages to use apparatus & materials. | Struggles through the construction. Follows very simple techniques. | Tends to make mistakes in the following procedure. | Even when detailed format is provided, struggles or makes errors while processing the work. | Presentation is poor, disorganised but follows an acceptable sequence. Rough work missing or untidy. | 1 |

5 | Not able to follow instructions or proceed with practical work without full assistance. Unaware of safety. | Cannot proceed with the development without help from time to time. | Even when format is given procedure is not understood. | Cannot process the work even with considerable help. | Presentation unacceptable; disorganised, untidy, poor. Rough work missing. | 0 |